Stephen Hawking: AI Could Be a “Real Danger”

http://flavorwire.files.wordpress.com/2014/06/safe_image.jpgIn a hilarious appearance on “Last Week Tonight” – John Oliver’s HBO show – guest Stephen Hawking spoke about some rather interesting concepts. Among these were the concepts of “imaginary time” and, more interestingly, artificial intelligence. And much to the surprise of Oliver, and perhaps more than a few viewers, Hawking’s was not too keen on the idea of the latter. In fact, his predictions were just a tad bit dire.

Of course, this is not the first time Oliver had a scientific authority on his show, as demonstrated by his recent episode which dealt with Climate Change and featured guest speaker Bill Nye “The Science Guy”. When asked about the concept of imaginary time, Hawking explained it as follows:

Imaginary time is like another direction in space. It’s the one bit of my work science fiction writers haven’t used.

singularity.specrepIn sum, imaginary time has something to do with time that runs in a different direction to the time that guides the universe and ravages us on a daily basis. And according to Hawking, the reason why sci-fi writers haven’t built stories around imaginary time is apparently due to the fact that  “They don’t understand it”. As for artificial intelligence, Hawking replied without any sugar-coating:

Artificial intelligence could be a real danger in the not too distant future. [For your average robot could simply] design improvements to itself and outsmart us all.

Oliver, channeling his inner 9-year-old, asked: “But why should I not be excited about fighting a robot?” Hawking offered a very scientific response: “You would lose.” And in that respect, he was absolutely right. One of the greatest concerns with AI, for better or for worse, is the fact that a superior intelligence, left alone to its own devices, would find ways to produce better and better machines without human oversight or intervention.

terminator2_JDAt worst, this could lead to the machines concluding that humanity is no longer necessary. At best, it would lead to an earthly utopia where machines address all our worries. But in all likelihood, it will lead to a future where the pace of technological change will impossible to predict. As history has repeatedly shown, technological change brings with it all kinds of social and political upheaval. If it becomes a runaway effect, humanity will find it impossible to keep up.

Keeping things light, Oliver began to worry that Hawking wasn’t talking to him at all. Instead, this could be a computer spouting wisdoms. To which, Hawking replied: “You’re an idiot.” Oliver also wondered whether, given that there may be many parallel universes, there might be one where he is smarter than Hawking. “Yes,” replied the physicist. “And also a universe where you’re funny.”

Well at least robots won’t have the jump on us when it comes to being irreverent. At least… not right away! Check out the video of the interview below:


Source: cnet.com

News From Space: Hawkings’ U-Turn on Black Holes

blackholeA recent paper published by Hawking, in which he reversed himself on several of his previous theories about black holes, has created quite a stir. In fact, his new found opinions on the subject have been controversial to the point that Nature News declared that there is no such thing as black holes anymore. This, however, is not quite what Hawking has claimed.

But it is clear that Hawking, one of the founders of modern theories about black holes, now believes that he he may have been when he first proposed his ideas 40 years ago. Now, he believes that black holes may NOT be the the final graveyard for matter that gets sucked in by the gravitational pull caused by a collapsing star, or that they prevent light from escaping.

stephen_hawkingBasically, he was wrong in how he attempted to resolve the paradox of black holes, because apparently they don’t exist. It all comes down to what is known as the “firewall paradox” for black holes.  The central feature of a black hole is its event horizon, the point of no return when approaching a black hole.  In Einstein’s theory of general relativity, the event horizon is where space and time are so warped by gravity that you can never escape.

 

This one-way nature of an event horizon has long been a challenge to understanding gravitational physics.  For example, a black hole event horizon would seem to violate the laws of thermodynamics, which state that nothing should have a temperature of absolute zero.  Even very cold things radiate a little heat, but if a black hole traps light then it doesn’t give off any heat and would have a temperature of zero.

quantum_entanglementThen in 1974, Stephen Hawking demonstrated that black holes do radiate light due to quantum mechanics. In quantum theory, the exact energy of a system cannot be known exactly, which means it’s energy can fluctuate spontaneously so long as its average remains constant. What Hawking demonstrated is that near the event horizon, pairs of particles can appear where one becomes trapped while the others escape as radiation.

 

 

While Hawking radiation solved one problem with black holes, it created another problem – aka. the firewall paradox. When quantum particles appear in pairs, they are entangled; but if one particle is captured by the black hole, and the other escapes, then the entangled nature of the pair is broken. In quantum mechanics, the particle pair would be described as in a “pure state”, and the event horizon would seem to break that state.

blackhole_birthLast year it was shown that if Hawking radiation is in a pure state, then either it cannot radiate in the way required by thermodynamics, or it would create a firewall of high energy particles near the surface of the event horizon.  According to general relativity, if you happen to be near the event horizon of a black hole you shouldn’t notice anything unusual.

In his latest paper, Hawking proposed a solution to this paradox by proposing that black holes don’t have event horizons. Instead they have apparent horizons that don’t require a firewall to obey thermodynamics, hence the declaration of “no more black holes” in the popular press. However, all these declarations may be a bit premature, as the problem Hawking’s sought to address may not exist at all.

black-holeIn short, the firewall paradox only arises if Hawking radiation is in a pure state. And in a paper presented last month by Sabine Hossenfelder of Cornell University shows that instead of being due to a pair of entangled particles, Hawking radiation is due to two pairs of entangled particles. One entangled pair gets trapped by the black hole, while the other entangled pair escapes.

The process is similar to Hawking’s original proposal, but the Hawking particles are not in a pure state, which means there’s no paradox to be had.  Black holes can radiate in a way that agrees with thermodynamics, and the region near the event horizon doesn’t have a firewall, just as general relativity requires.  So basically, Hawking’s proposal is a solution to a problem that doesn’t exist.

FTL_MEWith black holes, its always two step forwards, one step back. And this is hardly the only news in recent months when it comes to these mysterious and confounding phenomena. I imagine that the new theory from MIT, which states that wormholes may exist between black holes and be responsible for quantum entanglements (and resolve the problem of how gravity works) may also need revision next!

Too bad too. I was so looking forward to a universe where FTL wasn’t junk science…

Sources: universetoday.com, cbc.ca

Higgs Boson Confirmed!

CERN_tunnelIn July of 2012, scientists working for the CERN Laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland announced that they believed they had found the elusive “God Particle” – aka. the Higgs Boson. In addition to ending a decades-long search, the discovery also solved one of the greatest riddles of the universe, confirming the Standard Model of particle physics and shedding light on how the universe itself came to be.

But of course, this discovery needed to be confirmed before the scientific community could accept its existence as fact. The announcement made in July indicated that what the CERN scientists had found appeared to be the Higgs Boson, in that it fit the characteristics of the hypothetical subatomic particle. But as of last Thursday, they claimed that they are now quite certain that this is what they observed.

CERNJoe Incandela, a physicist who heads one of the two main teams at CERN (both made up of over 3000 individuals) claimed that: “To me it is clear that we are dealing with a Higgs boson, though we still have a long way to go to know what kind of Higgs boson it is”. In essence, he and his staff believe that may be several types of Higgs to be found, each of which behaves a little differently.

This was no small challenge, as the Higgs will only make an appearance once in every trillion collisions. Originally theorized in 1964 by British physicist Peter Higgs to explain why matter has mass, it has long been suspected that the Higgs stood alone, explaining how the six “flavors” of quarks, six types of leptons, and twelve gauge bosons, interact. Now, it may be the case that there are several, each of which moves differently and are responsible for different functions.

Higgs-bosonAnd of course, there are several larger mysteries that remain to be solved, which the discovery of the Higgs is expected to shed light on. These include why gravity is so weak, what the dark matter is that is believed to make up a large part of the total mass in the universe, and just how all the major forces of the universe work together to define this thing we know as reality.

These include gravity, weak and strong nuclear forces, and electromagnetism. The Theory of Relativity explains how gravity works, while Quantum Theory explains the other three. What has been missing for some time is a “Grand Unifying Theory”, something which could explain how these two theories could co-exist and account for all the basic forces of the universe.

If we can do that, we will have accomplished what Stephen Hawking has dreamed of for some time, and in effect be one step closer to what he described as: “understanding the mind of God”.

Source: nytimes.com

The “God Particle”… Found?

For decades, physicists have been searching for the elusive Higgs Boson, the elementary particle which will either confirm or deny the Standard Model of participle physics. This theory, in essence, is a unifying principle that explains how three of the four fundamental forces of the universe – electromagnetism, weak nuclear forces, and strong nuclear forces – interact. Intrinsic to it all is the understanding that all matter, at its most basic level, is constructed out of sub-atomic elementary particles. These particles, such as quarks, electrons, and neutrinos, endow all matter with its most basic properties.

Thanks to growing research in the fields of astrophysics, thermodynamics, quantum theory and particle physics, most of the elementary particles needed to make this model work have been discovered. Only one – the Higgs Boson, aka. “The God Particle” – remained to be found. Given that it is this particle which explains why other elementary particles have mass, its existence needed to be confirmed to make the model work. For decades, it has remained theoretical, but all that may have finally changed.

As of this morning, July 4th, 2012, physicists working with the Large Hadron Collider in Switzerland believe they have finally found it! That is to say that the CERN Laboratory (European Organization for Nuclear Research) announced the formal confirmation that a particle “consistent with the Higgs boson” exists with a very high likelihood of 99.99994%. However, scientists still need to verify that it is indeed the expected boson and not some other new particle.

In other words, we may be one step closer to (as Stephen Hawking said) “Understanding The Mind of God”. Which, given the alternative – that there are more elementary particles than the Standard Model accounts for – is good news indeed. Given that scientists still haven’t come up with a solid Grand Unifying theory, which would explain how all four basic forces of the universe interact with each other (electromagnetism, weak and strong nuclear forces and gravity), knowing that we can at least account for three would be good news indeed!

In the meantime, check out this video explaining more about the search for the “God Particle”:

Seeking “God Particle” (CBC.ca)