Hello fellow bloggers and blogger-followers! As you know, there are times I like to break with my usual subject matter to mark an important anniversary. Not always are these dates which accord with major scientific breakthrough or accomplishments. Sometimes, they are just about the anniversary’s of major historic events that are important to us for any number of reason. And today people all over the world, including several friends and family members of mine, stop to remember the events of Dec. 7th, 1941 – the day of the attack on Pearl Harbor.
Given the importance of this anniversary for so many people, not to mention the sheer historical importance of it, I couldn’t possibly let the day go by without saying something. And though I managed to acknowledge the 70th anniversary of Dieppe and the 100th anniversary of the War of 1812 this year, I neglected to say anything on the subject of the 68th anniversary of D-Day and never got over it! So in an attempt to not let another chance to pay my respects and acknowledge a major turning point in history pass me by, here are my thoughts on this somber anniversary. Please feel free to share your own…
“Yesterday, December 7th, 1941, a date which live in infamy, the United States was suddenly and deliberately by naval and air forces by the Empire of Japan.”
These historic words by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, which were part of his famous “Day of Infamy” speech, came just one day after Japanese forces struck at Pearl Harbor, signalling the entrance of the US into the Second World War and a major turning point in history. In addition to 2,402 souls that died and the 1,282 that were wounded, the attack forever altered American’s perceptions of themselves.
Until the end of 1941, most US citizens lived with the notion that their nation could remain uninvolved in the global conflict which was happening overseas. As Hitler overran Europe and the Japanese occupied much of China, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Ocean, the majority of citizens remained committed to non-involvement, citing the state of their economy or the fact that America wasn’t “prepared for another war” as reasons to stay out of the fighting.
All of that changed on Dec. 7th. For the first time, all people in the US, not just FDR and a hand full of analysts, came to understand that neutrality was not, and perhaps never was, an option. Some seven million men volunteered for military service within days, and American industry was fired up to produce all the tanks, aircraft, ships and munitions that would be needed to take on the Japanese Empire and the Axis Powers. Within three and a half years, total victory was won, though not without incredible sacrifice.
Little wonder then why this day is considered so important to historians and common people alike. Not only was it a tragic day, characterized by shock, loss and fear, it also was a day which led to one of the greatest national efforts ever seen, which in turn led to a victory that remains unparalleled in the annals of history. As just about every historian would say, Pearl Harbor “galvanized” the US and turned it from a semi-isolationist country that was still recovering from the Great Depression to a superpower which helped destroy Hitler, Fascism, and win the greatest and worst war in the history of civilization.
However, while the history books claim that it was Pearl Harbor which galvanized the US and erased its isolationist tendencies, FDR’s historic speech had a great deal of influence as well. When news of the attack first reached the public, the mood was one of shock, fear, and uncertainty. For years now, Americans had been fearing the specter of war and now that it was upon them, no one knew how to react or what would happen next.
But when people tuned in to listen to their President speak on the following day, they heard a stalwart man praising the efforts of US personnel and calling the citizenry to stand together against an evil power that was threatening not only them, but the entire world. Knowing that a man like FDR was at the helm, the same man who had seen them through the worst of the Depression and was famous for uttering the words “You have nothing to fear but fear itself” was as much responsible for this turnaround as the attack itself.
Years later, the significance and the true nature of this event are still the subject for debate. Since the initial days after the attack itself, there were some who speculated that the attack had been allowed to take place in order to achieve US involvement in the war. In fact, nine inquiries were conducted between the years of 1941 and 1946. However, due to secrecy and clearance concerns, especially where the issue of cryptography was concerned, the full details of the attack were not made clear to the public until 1992.
Reaction to the report was mixed. The findings seemed to emphasize that a combination of secrecy, a lack of inter-departmental communication, and an underestimating the Japanese forces capabilities and intentions prevented US forces from stopping the attack. However, some have claimed that these findings did not go far enough to probe the possibility that an attack was known of in advance and was allowed to take place, mainly for political reasons.
Much like with 9/11, it seemed that there were many questions and grey areas that were likely to give rise to speculation. When all is said and done though, hindsight is always capable of making it seem that their is intent and continuity to events, when in fact all things happen on an ad hoc basis and no one can see the outcome. In the end – and in this historians opinion – those who died on Dec 7th were victims of human error and the capacity for senseless violence.
To all those who perished at Pearl Harbor on that fateful day, to all those who died as a result of World War II and all wars previous and since; I think I speak for everyone when I say rest to peace on this day.